Islamic civilization affected the Arab and even the European world, and therefore had an impact in Andalusia, which was a center for the spread of knowledge in the countries of Islam and was one of the main reasons for the emergence of Europe.
The Renaissance began in Florence and was at the height of its success during the reign of Lorenzo de 'Medici by the influence of the artistic trinity Leonardo Da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo who enriched the Renaissance to its great impact.
Hagia Sophia is considered the most famous landmark in Istanbul, the church, the mosque, and the museum. For 15 centuries, civilizations succeeded in it. The building was distinguished by many architectural and historical features until it became marvelous In the modern era.
Each civilization takes pride in its technical and architectural achievements in designing buildings and their components. One of the most important elements of building design is the column, what are its elements, what are its uses and what are the civilizations that contributed to its development?
More than 4,000 years after the building of the pyramids, mystery still surrounds many of its aspects, and it hides many of its advantages and secrets, especially about the ways that the Pharaohs followed in building them. What are the secrets of this masterpiece?