Origin of the term :-
The term fascism is derived from the Italian word fasces, meaning a bundle of wands that were carried in front of rulers in ancient Rome as evidence of their powers. In the 1890s the word “fascia” began to be used in Italy to refer to a group or political association usually made up of revolutionary socialists. Mussolini’s employment to describe the armed parliamentary group that he formed during World War I and later on was the first Mussolini in his fascist uniform indicating that The term “fascisma” has had clear ideological meanings, and despite this the use of the terms “fascism” and “fascist” is often lacking in accuracy.
For example, fascist and dictator have become verbally calling everyone who adopts or expresses views contrary to or contrary to the value system of liberal ideology or its political, social and economic institutions, and the truth is that fascism should not be equated with methods of pure repression; A certain range of theories and values contributed to the popularity of fascist thought, and the fascist regimes that emerged in the 1920s and 1930s provided formulas of governance and mutual political administration that must be studied in isolation from the authoritarian nature of fascist regimes; Because of its synergistic importance in political theories.
Fascism is similar to communism, in that it owns or supervises all public resources. But, unlike communism, it allows industry to remain private property, but under government control. Fascism includes patriotic extremism and militant politics, individualism, expansion and racism.
Its political position :-
After receiving power in a country, fascism prohibits strikes and demonstrations. Personal liberties are restricted, especially travel to other countries. It dominates the media, promotes its policies, monitors publications, suppresses opposing opinions, prevents the formation of parties, and raises the issue of a particular race, while the party views other race with a view of superiority.
Fascists come to power - in most cases - following an economic collapse in the country, a military defeat, or another disaster. The fascist party is gaining popular support for its promises that it will revive the economy and restore the country's dignity. Fascists may take advantage of these peoples' fear of communism or minorities. As a result, fascists may gain power through peaceful elections or by force.
After the fascist party seizes power, its members assume executive, judicial, and legislative functions in the government. In most cases, the government is headed by one person - often authoritarian and attractive to the masses. Sometimes, the government is led by a body of party members. The fascists do not allow the establishment of another party or opposition to their policy.
The fascists' passion for glorifying patriotism increases the military spirit. And as the armed forces grow stronger, they may tend to conquer and occupy other countries.
Historical causes and development :-
The word fascism is related to symbols such as the "Roman Empire" during the era of the ancient Roman Empire. Therefore its historical source was from Rome, where Benito Mussolini [R] revived fascism in the year 1919 AD, although the beginning of fascism may go back to the era of Napoleon Bonaparte I (1769-1821 AD), who inspired many fascist methods of absolute dictatorship.
Fascism was founded in the twentieth century by Benito Mussolini (1883-1945 AD), so he took advantage of the poor economic situation that World War I led, and the Italian people promised prosperity and restored the glories of ancient Rome. After he founded the Fascist Party, he marched on Rome, after he gained the support of many landowners, business owners, the military and middle-class people, in the year 1924 AD, and the King of Italy forced Victor Emmanuel III to invite Mussolini to head the government. Mussolini banned all political parties except his fascist party and controlled industries, newspapers, police, schools, and the army. In the year 1940 AD, Mussolini led Italy to the Second World War, then he was executed in the year 1945 CE.
Mussolini, in the context of restoring the glories of the ancient Roman Empire, had invaded Libya and Abyssinia, and his party wore black shirts, so they knew about it.
The word fascism was originally related to symbols of ancient Roman authority called the Roman packet. See: Roman packet. Benito Mussolini coined the term in 1919, but fascism itself is much older than its name.
Social intervention :-
Personal freedom is severely restricted under the fascist government. For example, the government restricts travel to other countries, limits any contact with its people, dominates newspapers and other means of communication in its country, broadcasts advertising to promote its policies, and exercises strict censorship of publications to suppress opposing opinions . All children are required to join youth organizations, where they train in parades and learn fascist concepts. The Secret Police crush any resistance. The opposition may lead to imprisonment, torture and death.
Fascists consider all other peoples inferior to their own nationality to which they belong, so the fascist government may persecute or kill even the Roma or those belonging to other minorities.
Economic policies :-
Fascism encourages private economic activity as long as it serves the objectives of the ruling party, but fascism has complete control over industry to ensure that it produces what the country needs, while it imposes import duties, because it does not want to rely on other countries for vital products such as oil and steel.
The government also prohibits strikes; So as not to disturb production. Fascism prohibits trade unions and replaces them with a network of organizations in major industries.
These organizations, which are made up of workers and employers, are called enterprises. But it differs from that originating in other countries.
Fascist institutions are supposed to represent both workers and employers. In fact, these institutions are subject to government control, and through them the government determines wages, working hours, and production purposes. This is why the fascist country is sometimes called a state.
Italian Fascism :-
Italy was biased to the victorious side when the First World War ended in 1918. However, the war has brought the country into a deteriorating economic situation. In addition, the peace treaties yielded Italy far less land than expected. The fascist party of Benito Mussolini promised to bring luxury, and to restore the glory that had gathered Italy during the Roman Empire. Mussolini gained the support of many landowners, And major business owners, the military and the middle-class circles.
By 1922 CE, he had strengthened, assisted the fascists, marched Mussolini with his followers, to Rome in 1924, and forced the King of Italy to appoint Mussolini as Prime Minister. Soon Mussolini, who became known as the Leader - the Duchi - began to establish the rules of dictatorship, banning all political parties except the Fascist Party, and he controlled industries, newspapers, the police, and schools. In 1940, Mussolini led Italy to World War II alongside Nazi Germany. Then Italy soon surrendered to the allies.
Nazi (Germany) :-
Another fascist regime appeared in Germany, following the defeat of Germany in the First World War, and the collapse of its economy in the 1920s, due to sanctions, war losses, and the loss of much of the German Empire. By 1933 the German National Socialist Party had become Germany's strongest party, and its leader Adolf Hitler was called in to the position of Chancellor (Prime Minister), transforming Germany into a fascist state and eliminating any opposition to it.
Hitler called - and he was called the leader - that the German people, the Aryans, were superior to other peoples. He expressed his views and racism with this book, "My Struggle." His Nazi party killed large numbers of ethnic minorities.
Hitler declared - then Mussolini and Japan - World War II in 1939, after he annexed the Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) to Germany. Then his forces invaded most of the European countries. She advanced in the depths of the former Soviet Union, but later bounced back. The course of World War II had been altered in the interests of the allies who had defeated and divided Germany. Thus Germany was defeated in 1945 and the Nazi government fell.
A fascist group appeared in Japan in the thirties of the twentieth century aimed at extending the borders of Japan to form an empire in Southeast Asia, then defeated this group with Japan in World War II, after the defeat of Germany, then after the first two American atomic bombs were dropped on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in a month August 1945 A.D.
Sjd Fascist (Hungary) :-
In Hungary, a fascist party called Or cross received wide support in the late 1930's.
Iron Guard (Romania) :-
During the same period a fascist movement emerged in the name of the Iron Guard, as the strongest political party in Romania.
In Argentina, Juan Peron founded a dictatorship in 1946. When the Argentine people revolted against this dictatorial regime, Peron resigned, then returned to power in 1973 until his death. In Spain, Francisco Franco founded the “Spanish Phalange”, assisted by Hitler and Mussolini, and ruled Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975 AD. Franco's rule is seen as fascist, though it lacks some of the essential features of fascism.
There are some movements and parties in many developing countries that adopt some fascist characteristics and characteristics in their ideas and methods of work.
Spain under Franco's control :-
During the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 AD) a fascist group, in the name of the Spanish Phalanges, sided with the revolutionary powers that were led by Francisco Franco.
Franco's forces won the war, and Spain ruled authoritarian rule from 1939 until his death in 1975. Many people consider Franco's rule to be fascist. Whatever it is, the majority of historians and political thinkers consider the Franco government to be free of essential features of fascism.