The Italian language has a quite diverse history, its history and origins go back to the Vulgar Latin, the Italian is a Romance language like the French, the Portuguese and the Spanish belonging to the Romance family of roots expanded throughout Europe during the whole period of the Roman Empire.
Italian language derived from the Vulgar Latin developed through a long process that began long before the fall of the Roman Empire by the 5th century. By this time, Latin was being propagated and imposed throughout the Empire as a mother tongue or as a shared language. However, for many centuries and especially during the time of the Middle Ages, Latin was the only dominant language that was used in many of the European universities of the time and in all official events held around the villages of Latin speakers.
It is known that the first documents by the time, were written in this called vernacular language, which was considered the "language spoken" by the people, date back to around 960.
Italian is a rich language full of vocabulary and idiomatic expressions, even containing many nouns. In fact, it is known that the most complete Italian dictionaries can contain between 80,000 and 250,000 entries, meanings and instantaneous translations of new words within the same language.
It is known that in Italian language, approximately half of the population uses only 3000 words in a daily conversation.
The Italian language belongs to the Italian branch of all Indo-European languages and is the official language in the Republic of Italy. If we talk about the grammar of Italian, we know that the sound system of Italian is quite similar to the one of Latin or Spanish because in its grammar we find many similarities with other modern Romance languages in the adjectives, the nouns and the use of determined and indeterminate articles, the perfect tense systems and progressive tenses.
The Italian language, as we know it today, is the result of a long process of evolution and progress full of debate about how it should be the correct way to speak and use the language that had already begun by the year 1600. For many centuries and until after the unification of Italy in 1861, the country was divided into multiple states, most of which were under foreign rule. Later, when this unification took place in 1861, the decision was made to choose the "Tuscan" as the main official language of Italy, but when the generalization of the Italian language came, the Italian population had a high rate of use of the Tuscan language, which continued mostly in rural areas until 1950.
As a result of this, millions of dialects emerged and later were employed as an everyday language for many centuries, dialects would let people express themselves and communicate in Italian without paying attention to phonetic aspects belonging to local spoken Italian by that time, all of this was the result of the people's illiteracy.
The use of all dialects in Italy represents an unique situation with respect to the rest of the European continent. Today, dialects are still used in different parts of Italy as an informal way of communicating in different social situations and in familiar or comfortable environments. Contrary to the popular belief which says that dialects are widely used in certain regions of Italy, not only by the older generations; it is true that, among the young population, the use of standard Italian predominates and many of them are able to use or at least understand some or their own dialects in informal and familiar situations.
The dialects, as well as the accents themselves, can suffer many and multiple variations and even in the same regions where they are spoken. Although in other regions it is easier to recognize the dialectal differences between places in the same province or even between regions that are a few kilometers away from them, it should be emphasized that the standard use of Italian is quite important since the other dialects have derived from it.
During the long period of the evolution of the Italian language's progress, many dialects emerged over time from the standardization of the Italian Language as a general language of the country. In the past, many dialects and their rights, presented a particular difficulty reflected in the native speakers themselves. In 1950, due to the situation of social, political and economic reconstruction of Italy, less than 20% of the entire Italian population spoke Italian fluently in their daily lives.
The diversity of many dialects that were spoken in the past of Italy, makes it a little difficult to trace the history of Italian Language and its origins. Nowadays, there are several hypotheses about the real origins of this beautiful language, many Italian Native Speakers have said that its roots have derived from Vulgar Latin, but still, the fall of the Roman Empire and the invasion of the region at the hands of the Ostrogoths, Byzantines, Normans and Franks, helped the influence of the linguistic unit that was spoken in the Italian peninsula (the dialects).
Modern Italian was the language of choice when Italy was unified in the 19th century and became the official language of the country, leaving behind the use of many dialects that had already been existing and had already been spoken throughout Italy but less frequently. With the advent of technology and the television, the use of the Standardized Italian was becoming stronger and intensified itself, and so it came to the present, in which the Italian Constitution only recognizes Modern Italian as the official language of the whole country.