What is Data?

The word 'data' is Latin and is a plural form of the word 'datum.' Datum means 'an item of information.' Data is a distinct small unit of information collection—for example, name, age, height, weight, etc. Data can be used in various sources like text, numbers, media, bytes, etc. It can be stored in paper or electronic memory.

What is a Database?

A database is a systematic collection of data that support electronic storage and manipulation. A database makes data management easy. The main purpose of the database is to store, retrieve and manage a large amount of information. Modern databases are governed by the Database Management Systems (DBMS). There are a lot of data or information scattered around us. However, collecting all this information can't be called a database because a database collects data or information related to each other—for example, Voter lists, Employer's information in a company, etc.

History of Database:

  • The first computer database was built in the 1960s by Charles Bachman.
  • But the history of the database really begins in 1970.
  • In 1970, E.F.Codd published an important paper that introduced a new model of data.
  • Two large relational database system prototypes were built between 1974 and 1977, created at IBM San Jose.
  • A new database model Entity-Relationship (ER) defined by P.Chen in 1976.
  • In 1980, the relational databases grew increasingly influential and more relational DBMS were developed.
  • In 1985, object orient DBMS was developed.
  • Prototypes or ODMS were created for object database management systems in the early 1990s.
  • In 1995, the first internet database applications were released.
  • In 2000, NoSQL had become a viable option that needed scale.
  • NoSQL database is gradually becoming more commonly used than RDMS implementations.

Types of Database:

Relational database: A relational database is a database that stores and provides access to interrelated data points. Relational databases are based on the relational model. This types of database define the relationship in the form table with columns and rows.

Object Orient Database: The idea of an object orient database was originated in 1985, and now it has become common object orient programming (OOP) languages like C++, Java, LISP, C#, etc. This database management system is based on objects, and data is stored in the form of objects. It can support the storage of all data types.

Distributed Database: In this type of database, the set of a database is stored on multiple computers that are typically displayed in applications as a single database. In this model, data are not in one place. It is distributed at various organizations.

Data Warehouse: A data warehouse is an information system that contains historical and cumulative data from different sources and is used to connect and analyze business data from heterogeneous sources. The concept of a data warehouse simplifies the reporting and analysis process of the organization.

NoSQL Database: NoSQL database is used for large sets of distributed data. Few big data performance issues are effectively managed by the related database. This type of computer database is very good at analyzing large-sized unstructured data. This database became more popular and more complex.

Graph Database: Graph-based databases use graph theory for storage, maps, and query relationships. This type of computer database is mostly used for interconnection analysis. For example, an organization may use a graph database to collect data about customers from social media.

OLTP Database: This type of database is a speedy, analytics-focused database designed for large numbers of transactions performed by many people. It can perform fast query processing and maintain data integrity.

Advantages and disadvantages of Database:


  1. Data can be presented and managed very quickly.
  2. Data can be updated easily.
  3. The format of data can be exchanged in a short time.
  4. Data/ records can be easily found.
  5. Better data integration.
  6. Reduced data redundancy.
  7. It can improve data security.
  8. Data sharing is made easy.


  1. The database requires a lot of time to design.
  2. The database is complex and difficult to design.
  3. Maintenance is required and high cost.
  4. Need expert programmers for maintenance.
  5. Initial training is required for all users.
  6. Risk of database failure
  7. A database may be invalid or affected by incorrect information/data.
  8. If you don't have the backup and sometimes it can be problematic because the database goes down, and all data can be destroyed or damaged.