The Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world. It is a vast forest on the coast of the Bay of Bengal. Located in the delta region of the Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra basins, this magnificent forest covers Khulna, Satkhira and Bagerhat districts of Bangladesh and two districts of the Indian state of West Bengal, North 24 Parganas, and South 24 Parganas. The total area of the Sundarbans is 10,000 sq km, of which 6,016 sq km is in Bangladesh and the rest is in India. The Sundarbans was recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 6 December 1997.
In Bengal, Sundarbans literally means beautiful jungle or beautiful forest land. The Sundarbans may have been named after a beautiful tree that grows abundantly there. Other possible explanations are that it may have been named after "Samudraban" or "Chandra-bandhe," From ancient aboriginal people. Small islands with salinity. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the size of the Sundarbans was almost double what it is today. The increasing human pressure on the forest has gradually reduced its size.
The legal rights of the first forest management department over the Sundarbans were established in 1869. According to the Forest Act (Section 6) of 1965, a large part of the Sundarbans was declared as forest land in 1875 - 76. The Sundarbans is a large habitat for wildlife. The tortoise (Keto tortoise, Sundi tortoise, Dhoom cartilage tortoise ), chameleon and large Monitor Lizard and Royal Bengal tiger are some of the endemic species of Sundarbans.
The freshwater wetland forests of the Sundarbans belong to the tropical moist-flowering forests of Bangladesh. Such forests are an example of brackish wetlands. The main forest diversity of the Sundarbans is the abundance of Sundari, Gewa, Jhamti, Garan, and Keora. According to Praine, which was published in 1903, contains 245 classes and 334 species of plants in the Sundarbans. Other coastal mangrove forests, which are not deltaic, have wide variations in plant life.
In addition to the predominance of Sundari and Gewa throughout the region, there are scattered Dhundals, Grasses, Shawls, Reeds, and Golpata. Keora refers to the newly formed swamps and this species is essential for wildlife, especially Chitra deer. Recent research has shown that the Sundarbans of Bangladesh plays a critical role in terms of trade. Habitat of 120 species of fish, 260 species of birds, 42 species of mammals, 35 species of reptiles and 6 species of amphibians.
The Sundarbans are a paradise for ornithologists to study and study birds. No previous scientific research has been done on the overall fish in the Sundarbans. As a result, the current state of the fish is almost extinct; no data-based information is available on the endangered fish. It is estimated that there are about 300 species of vertebrates in the Sundarbans. There are 13 types of fishing in the Sundarbans. Smaller holes in rocket nets cause extensive damage to seedlings, fish and eggs. Also, due to the increase in the number of prisons and the application of poison, fishing is on the verge of extinction. The most famous fish in the Sundarbans is Parshe and Shaplapata fish.
Extensive biodiversity exists in the Sundarbans. As of 2004, the Sundarbans is home to 500 Royal Bengal Tigers, the single largest tiger population in the world.
The rivers of the Sundarbans are the meeting place of salt water and fresh water. So the area is the middle ground where the fresh water of the river from the Ganges becomes the salt water of the Bay of Bengal.The population of the Sundarbans is over 4 million but most of it is not permanent. These forests play a very preventive and productive role. Cyclone-prone Bangladesh plays a role as a natural safety net for the coastal population and their resources.