1.Socialism:

Socialism is a Socio-economic system based on social ownership of the primary means of production, to best meet the needs of society. The basic economic rule in this system is the abolition of the class division in society and the destruction of human exploitation of the human being, intending to achieve justice and equality between members of the community. The doctrines and theories that dealt with socialist thought have multiplied. Still, only Marxist-Leninist theory took this thought into reality. It was the basis upon which socialist regimes prevailed in several countries in the twentieth century. Therefore research in the foundations and foundations of the socialist system means in essence, the view of Marxism - Leninism to this topic.

Socialism is fundamentally at odds with capitalism. Because eliminating private ownership of the means of production and replacing the cultural property with it leads to changing the economic, social and political structure of society. After the goal of production in the capitalist system was to achieve a profit for the owners of the means of production by exploiting the working class and toilers, the purpose of creation in the socialist system would be to meet the material and spiritual needs of the members of society and to put an end to exploitation. This system imposes an obligation to work on everyone because “whoever does not work does not eat.” In this way, society turns from a warring community to one that unites the interests of producers and workers.

Karl Marx. 1875

Distinctive general features of the socialist system:

Socialism is an integrated system economically,socially and politically, aiming to achieve justice in society, and to provide employment opportunities for its members without exploitation, and is based on social ownership of the means of production.

A. In the economic field, the method of socialist production is only realized when the means of production become the property of the entire society, that is, the capital of the state and cooperatives, and the goal of creation is to meet the maximum needs of the material and spiritual members of society. Work shall be imposed on all and available to those who can do it. Production in this system is carried out according to plans laid down by the state and supervising their implementation. The output is distributed according to the socialist distribution law for each according to the size and quality of its work.

B. In the social field, the class struggle in society is absent in the social system, and the disputes between nations and peoples disappear with the demise of this conflict. However, it is not possible at the stage of building socialism to achieve social equality because work remains divided into mental and physical labor, into industrial and agricultural work. These conditions cause the heterogeneity of society to stay at the social level and the survival of some classes of society, such as workers and peasants, and other groups did not Compose an exceptional quality as the intelligentsia. This leads to the persistence of some contradictions that do not bear the nature of fighting and can be resolved within the framework of the socialist system in the process of continuous development.

Charles Fourier, influential early French socialist thinker.

C. As for the political field, the socialist system imposes that political power be in the hands of producers and workers, headed by the working class, with a vanguard party leading the state and society. Basic social issues are resolved with the broad popular and democratic participation provided by grass-roots organizations. Based on the foregoing, the characteristics of the socialist society can be determined as follows:

A. The presence of productive forces, advanced science, and avant-garde culture, with a continuing rise in the standard of living in society, and the availability of conditions for the development of individual life in all respects.

B. The existence of socialist production relations that achieve rapprochement between all classes and productive social strata, and achieve real equality between all nations and peoples and pushes them to cooperate with each other.

C. Existence of high-level organization, sincerity and high awareness of the workers of national and international issues.

D. The rule of law in society and between states.

E. The availability of popular democracy with the participation of the productive groups in managing the country’s helm. And the combination of citizens actual rights and freedoms with their duties and responsibilities to society.

Leon Trotsky, Vladimir Lenin, and Lev Kamenig at the Second Congress of the Communist Party, 1919.

The lack of all or some of these features impedes the development of a socialist society, of course, and may threaten its demise at times, and historical experience confirms this.

Economy:

Economic life in any society is conducted according to specific laws and not according to the desire of individuals in community. The laws of economic growth and economic activity have an objective nature, which is evident in the relationship between phenomena. Therefore, the financial system in society is determined by relations of production, that is, connections between people in the field of production, distribution, exchange and consumption of material goods. As for the basis of the economic system, it is a specific form of ownership of the means of production, which determines the economic relations between the classes and social groups. Also, the financial system is linked to the level of social development, It defines the socio-economiccomposition that provides the interaction of the level of production with the political and legal superstructure. Social ownership of the means of production forms the basis of economic socialism. As for the material and technical base of socialism, it is a dense and developed industry, with automation dominating all branches of the national economy.

Socialism, by adopting the social ownership of the means of production, brings the national economy into an integrated unit. And the development of the national economy as a whole becomes in the circle of conscious and targeted activity, as is the product within the framework of each institution separately.

In a socialist society, people are aware of objective economic laws, have ownership of them, and use them in the practice of commercial construction for the good of the whole society.

Rosa Luxemburg, prominent Marxist revolutionary and leader of the Asparagian uprising, 1919.

The fundamental economic law of socialism has highlighted the characteristics of the method of socialist production, which are fundamentally different from the historical forms of means of production that were before the emergence of socialism. While the law of profit is the fundamental economic law of capitalism, the overall well-being, the realization of the principle of satisfying and satisfying the increasing needs of individuals and the development of the personality of the individual collectively constitute the fundamental economic law of socialism. This means a direct merger between producers and means of production so that there is no group of individuals that monopolizes the primary means of production. And that the productive forces have a social nature that is used to increase the productivity of work and raise the standard of living of members of society When society seeks to satisfy the material. The moral needs of individuals, the interests of the community constitute the result, along with the benefits of individuals, an integrated unit, because raising the level of the individual increases his contribution to social production. This means the unity of social and personal interests, which turns work into creative activity. Socialist matches between producers in a socialist society replace competition and speculation among workers in the labor market. Moreover, the introduction of mechanization, improvement of work conditions, and equality in work all provide the material terms for converting work into creative activity and converting the process of satisfying the needs in a socialist society into a social issue that falls on the community as a whole.

Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union 1922 from 1953.

The needs of individuals are not only limited to their physiological living needs but also include their moral, cultural and social needs because the individual is a social being.The unity of material and moral needs results from the organic agreement that links the individual and society. And since the individual in the socialist society is a producer and a consumer, his demands are not limited to the production of the means of consumption, but rather an increase in the means of production and its development as well. Likewise, human needs do not remain constant but are continually evolving, and for this reason, the concept of fully satisfying human needs remains a relative concept. To achieve full satisfaction, production development and the adoption of an appropriate economic policy are required.

Moreover, the level of comfort is related to the level of development of productive forces. This can be summarized by saying: A social, organized, conscious, and purposeful society can direct production and distribution to satisfy social and individual needs according to a scale of priorities determined by the abundance of available resources.Likewise, a socialist society is primarily concerned with providing basic needs for all its members such as food, housing, education, and health services. Then The list of requirements that it seeks to satisfy increases with the increase in available capabilities, and the primary goal of socialist production is to meet the needs of producers and the people as a whole. In this sense, Engels says: “Socialism provides the possibility to provide sufficient material conditions for the living of all members of society and to improve them day by day, and to achieve full free development, and to meet the material and moral needs of society members through social production.”

The foundations of the socialist economy are rooted in the transition from capitalism to socialism by building a socialist industrial base, developing agriculture and transferring it from individual to collective through cooperative farms and state farms, eliminating every possibility of exploitation occurring, removing competition and competition relations, spontaneous market relations, and consolidating social ownership of the means of production.

Since the socialist economy is the basis of life in the socialist society, it requires the development of all other fields (political, social, and cultural). The state contributes to doing work the first vital need for every citizen when the material and moral interest of producers is achieved in reaping the fruits of production. This interest is achieved by applying the socialist principle to distribute material goods according to the amount and type of work done.

The failure of the socialist society, for any reason, to achieve the content of the fundamental economic law of socialism in a manner that ensures that the needs of the growing members of society are met, satisfied and raise their standard of living in all fields that would negatively affect the productivity of work and lead to a decline in social production. The failure to implement the socialist distribution law for material goods "for each according to the size and quality of his work" is the main factor in obstructing the development of a socialist society and the destruction of its main driving force.

The role of the working class in the socialist transformation process:

The questions of class struggle occupied an essential place in the principles of scientific socialism. Marx and Engels emphasized the revolutionary role of the working class in the process of socialist transformation, and one of the most important factors determining this role is the fact that the working class is the primary productive force in society. It is the most suffering class of exploitation in bourgeois society. The only type that has an interest in replacing the social property with private ownership of the means of production, which is also the most organized class of society, Because its work in production institutions is related to obedience, discipline, and classroom alignment, and it is the most open group of community to the ideas of scientific socialism, and the most advanced and revolutionary, because it is always in contact with the latest achievements of science and technology that relate to modernizing and developing the means of production. By deepening the alliance between the working class and hard-working peasants, the educated, employed and all working people, the working class can liberate the entire society from exploitation.

Transitional phase:

The stage of transformation from capitalist society to socialist society and building socialism is transitional and necessary because the relations of production in the socialist system and the social ownership of the means of production cannot be born in the bowels of the capitalist system. Only introductions to socialism arise in this system. Thus the transitional stage is a bridge to solve the primary tasks of the transition from capitalism to socialism, the most prominent of which are: liquidating capitalist production relations, replacing them with socialist relations, liquidating exploited classes, and abolishing the exploitation of the human person and all the reasons that generate it. Building the social and material social base by establishing a developed industry, using high technology, overcoming the multiplicity of patterns in the national economy, gradually transforming small artisan production into a large socialist cooperative output, establishing agricultural cooperatives, and generalizing the cultural revolution in harmony with the principles of socialism. In this stage of transformation, socialism is not complete with construction, it is under construction, and capitalism is in the liquidation stage and has not been completely liquidated. The transitional period begins the moment of the victory of the socialist revolution and the establishment of a proletarian dictatorship and continues until socialism is built. It is the first phase of communist society.

The mechanism of the socialist economy:

Economic activity in the socialist system is not governed by a market economy and individualism. Still, it is mainly controlled by a financial plan that aims to meet the growing needs of the society that expresses its goals and desires. Profit in a socialist economy is a means rather than an end. In the framework of planning, the market is an effective and beneficial means for the economy, rather than being a controlling woman, as in the capitalist system.

Social ownership of the means of production:

The social ownership of the means of production constitutes the economic basis of the socialist system. This means that all members of society are equal among themselves in terms of the means of production,and have similar possibilities. That is, most of the natural resources and capital belong to the people, and this includes the land, industries, banks, the financial sector and trade, both internal and external. However, cultural property under the socialist system does not deny the existence of personal ownership of citizens. This particular property includes goods for personal use and consumption. However, it is not permissible to use the property owned by the citizen personally to exploit others or obtain income not resulting from work.

Planning the National Economy:

The national economy in the socialist countries is developing by decree. The planning of the national economy is an essential economic function of the socialist state, and the management of the planned national economy is based on a scientific basis based on objective economic laws. The principles of socialist planning for the national economy are found in the books of Lenin and in the documents of the Communist and Workers' Parties of all the socialist countries. The planning process is usually assigned to a planning authority in each country. The primary engine of economic activity is the broad goals set by the party that leads the state and society.

Planning in socialist countries means organizing the activity related to the production, exchange, distribution, and consumption process. In other words, the organization of productive activity carried out by free people and implemented by socialist means of production. Its aim is to meet the needs of individuals and society, which are continually increasing. This way of consciously managing the process of renewing expanded social production is a feature of the socialist system.

Distribution Act:

"For each according to the size and quality of his work":The material goods produced by the socialist society are distributed according to the amount and quality of the work done, so the one who gives his work more than others gets more material goods than others. Thus, the income resulting from the property "rent, interest and profit" is canceled, and the distribution of income depends on the amount and type of work done. Besides private consumption, a new system of social expenditure and the services that the state provides to citizens for free are based.

A breach in the application of the socialist distribution law would hinder economic growth on the one hand and create a contradiction between individuals and groups. On the other hand, so some people earn more from society than they offer, while others get less than they deserve. The phenomenon of exploitation of some people returns to others in a new aspect that is not related to the ownership of the means of production, and this leads to weakening the mechanism of economic activity in society and threatens its existence.

History:

The seeds of socialist thought have been known from ancient times and the ideal Republic of Plato is based mainly on the privileged and gifted elite of people aristocratic socialist republic. The Christian, heavenly religions and Islam also came with a set of principles that are at the heart of socialist thought. The world also knew movements that represented a rejection of reality, and an attempt to build a new society based on justice and equality such as the slave revolts in Rome and the revolts of the Slaves and Qarmatians in the Abbasid era, and the peasant movements in the Arab world and others.

The Middle Ages known a number of statesmen and clerics from the campaigners of socialist and reformist principles such as "Abu Dhar al-Ghafari" the famous companion and "Thomas Aquinas" and "Thomas More" English humanistic thinker tendency and "Campanella" who called for building a society that does not know the exploitation and the power of money, And others.

In response to the injustice and class inequality generated by the emergence of capitalism in Europe, a number of European thinkers put forward principles aimed at rejecting capitalism and establishing alternative socialism based on the social ownership of the means of production. They criticized the contradictions of bourgeois society and its negative repercussions on the subjugated classes of the population, in the forefront of these thinkers who described the "Utopian socialists" Saint Simon, Charles Fourier of France, and Robert Owen of England. They believed that a new socialist society could be established by convincing the ruling classes of the need for socialism by developing "human nature". And the establishment of cooperative societies. Although the Utopian socialists were able to foresee some features of the future socialist system, they were not able to link their theories with the struggle of the working class in order to establish a socialist society and eliminate the method of capitalist production.

The truth is that the ideas of Utopian socialism came in response to the contradictions of capitalism and offered a correct criticism of them,as they carried some principles that contributed to building the socialist theory, but they could not make socialism a scientific theory adopted by the working class, and armed with it in its struggle with the bourgeoisie and its exploitation, while he was able Marx and Engels transform socialism from a Utopian doctrine to science, and laid the scientific foundations of socialism, and they were able to formulate the primary laws of the development of socialism in the light of dialectical materialistic theory and historical materialism and an interpretation on an economic basis the transient or episodic character of capitalism and the role of the ancient and global working class.

The seeds of socialist thought among Arabs: The ceremony of Arab history since Pre-Islamic times has a number of trends and doctrines of a progressive revolutionary nature, some of which were embodied in movements that oppose injustice and enslavement. The phenomenon of al-Salaqa in the Pre-Islamic era was only a direct result of economic and social differentiation, and  there  were a group of the poor who broke away from their tribes, and they declared weapons in the face of the wealthy from their people, and they fought for a society in which equality and brotherhood and solidarity relations prevailed among people, at a time when community was Arabia is developing towards private property and exploitation relationships.

Ibn Khaldun, who lived in the fourteenth century AD, is a pioneer in the field of historical materialism. Ibn Khaldoun studied the history of the Arab Maghreb on its contradictions and arrived at extracting the relationship between events and laws that determine the course of history, indicating that social phenomena are subject to regulations with a degree of consistency and permanence and that these laws are mainly related to economic development.

Marx, Socialism, and Democracy:

Marx and Social Democracy: Socialist thinkers, before Marx, presented many valuable ideas that supplied Marxist thought that dominated Europe in the last third of the nineteenth century.Karl Marx (1818-1883) combined idealistic German philosophy, British political economy, and French socialism. In the "Communist Manifesto,"which included his theories on the dialectic of the evolution of societies, Marx distinguished his approach from scientific socialism and the socialism of its predecessors from what he called the ideal socialists. Marx emphasized that his ideas are based on the scientific examination of the movement of history and on the development of capitalism and its achievements in his time. In this context, Marx says, "History is made by class struggle. The proletarian struggle with capitalist employers will ultimately lead to the establishment of a socialist society in which the producers decide their common destiny and are free from any economic or social constraints. Then the class struggle will come to an end. ” Ferdinand Lassale, the engineer of the workers' movement in Germany, agreed with Marx on the necessity of a unified voluntary organization of the working class. Still, he contradicted Marx by calling for the state to provide the necessary capital to establish productive cooperatives that would liberate workers from capitalist domination, and Marx saw, in contrast, From LaSalle, this petition of the bourgeois state is beyond any proposition.

It was confirmed to Marx, who was at the outset in favor of democratic socialism, the impossibility of turning the bourgeois states into a socialist instrument.

Although the German Social Democrats were showing an apparent tendency to speak about Marx's revolutionary theories, in reality, they were steadily moving into parliamentary activity, including Edward Bernstein (1850-1932) who declared that Germany did not have to go through revolutionary transformations. Violent to achieve socialist goals, and he hoped to gradually develop capitalism, and by using Parliament as a lever for socialist reforms.

Marxism in Russia before the revolution:

Alexander Ivanovich Gertsen (1812-1870) saw in the peasant communes the birth of a socialist society in the future and believed that Russian socialism might go beyond capitalism and build a cooperative community based on ancient folk and peasant traditions.

Unlike Gerritsen, Georgi Plekhanov, the Russian father of Russian Marxism, believed that Russian socialism should rely on (proletarian) workers, factories, and factories and that Russia does not represent an exceptional case, because the socialist revolution is European in character. A Russian position it is determined by its own labor movement.

In a number of his books, Plekhanov attacked the Russian popular movement and demonstrated that Marx demonstrated the historical and objective necessity of socialism. He also stressed the imperative of the bourgeois revolution in Russia within the framework of the modern development movement. He said that the organized working class will realize how to benefit from the bourgeois revolution, and how to move this revolution forward.

On the other hand, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin stressed the importance of the Military action of the Revolution. He referred to this in his work "What Work" he completed in 1902, saying: Socialism will not be achieved unless professional revolutionaries succeed in mobilizing and strengthening workers and peasants, and they need disciplined revolutionary organizations that do not know the truce to mobilize the masses and incite them to work. Lenin's followers and other Russian Marxists participated in the second conference of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party, which was held in London in 1903.

At this conference, Martov declared a view that contradicted Lenin, saying: “The Labor Party is not only an organization of professional revolutionaries, but rather consists of them, and of the general assembly of the leading and active elements of the proletarian.”

Despite the first cooperation between the various directions of the Russian Social Democratic Movement, intellectual and political contradictions deepened and two main trends emerged from this. The first direction included the minority that opposed Lenin, who was called the "Mensheviks"(the opposition) and included Plekhanov and Trotsky, who stood by his side at the beginning and with them most intellectuals, especially Jews, among them. As for the second trend, it included the pro-Lenin majority, which was known as the Bolsheviks (the majority), and most of them were members of the working class.

Leninism developed for Marxism:

Leninism is defined as Marxism in the era of imperialism and the proletarian revolution, the period of the collapse of colonialism (colonialism) and the victory of national liberation movements, the period of the transition of humanity from capitalism to socialism and the building of communist society.

Lenin developed the essential elements of Marxism, such as philosophy, political economy, and scientific socialism. He formulated the theory of imperialism as the highest stage of the development of capitalism and the last of it. He emphasized that empire is in its essence monopoly capitalism but rather a monopoly of the capitalist state, indicating the basic features of the stage of colonialism and the contradictions that surround it, in preparation for formation The material, social and political conditions for the victory of the socialist revolution. Lenin concluded that the strength of Proletarianism lies in its influence in the course of history and that it is much higher than its size compared to the total population.

Vladimir Lenin.

Lenin also developed the Marxist theory on the socialist revolution following the characteristics of the current historical stage, as it clearly clarified the leading role of the proletarian in the revolution. The particular importance of the working class and the industrious peasant class, indicating the nature of the relationship that must exist between the proletarian and the various peasant classes in the successive stages of this revolution.

On the other hand, he was able to complete the theory of the development of the bourgeois-democratic revolution into a socialist revolution, confirming the interlinked relations between the struggle for democracy and the struggle for socialism. In his attempt to explain the effect of the law of imbalance development of capitalism in the stage of imperialism, he reached a conclusion that had a theoretical and political significance, which is a possibility, or even an imperative, victory of the socialist revolution in one country, or in several capitalist states, with the chance of the triumph of the revolution by peaceful means in the circumstances Particular, Lenin explained the character of the national question in terms of the struggle of the proletarian class, affirming the principle of complete equality between states, the right of colonial and oppressed peoples to self-determination, and their right to defend the principles of internationalism within the framework of workers' movements and proletarian organizations.

It is the right of the struggle of the common toilers of all nationalities and of all countries for national and social liberation and for the formation of a voluntary union of peoples. Lenin demonstrated the essence of the driving forces in the national liberation movements against imperialism, their common enemy. He also made it clear that in certain exceptional circumstances, underdeveloped countries could move to socialism, bypassing the capitalist stage.

Lenin developed an integral theory of the transition from capitalism to socialism, defining its laws and regulations, drawing from the experience of the "Paris Commune" and the Russian revolutions, by which he could develop Marx and Engels' theory of the proletarian dictatorship, indicating the historical importance of establishing the state of the soviets, A new type of democratic state Not measured by any bourgeois parliamentary republic. Lenin believes that the transformation from capitalism to socialism can, and must, be made by various political methods, that the essence of all of these methods is only the proletarian dictatorship, stressing that its main component is not power, Rather, work to tighten the non-proletarian groups, especially the working peasant groups, around the working class, and the struggle to build socialism, and that the underlying condition for achieving a proletarian dictatorship is the leadership of the Communist Party.

Lenin's theoretical and political work laid the foundations for a new Leninist phase of the development of Marxism and the struggle of the world working class. Perhaps the main contribution of Lenin's work to the development of Marxism lies in its distinction of what is a global general in the Russian Revolution, which is specific to Russia, to benefit from the experience of the Russian Revolution within the limits of its universal characteristics and not to be drawn into its tradition in its purely Russian features.

System of socialist countries:

The socialist system applied the first that was involved in the former Soviet Union after the victory of the October Socialist Revolution in 1917. Less than thirty years after the triumph of that revolution, the socialist system spread to some countries in the world, especially in Eastern Europein the aftermath of the Second World War and in the light of its results and the results about him. Thus, the global socialist system emerged, and the group of socialist states became an essential role in economic, political andsocial life in the world level until 1985. It should be noted here that the socialist system was formed as a result of the Soviet military presence In the countries of Eastern Europe, and not because of the development of productive forces. They're reaching an advanced level, the transition to socialism has become an objective necessity.

The ties and relations between the group of socialist states represented social, economic and political cooperation between independent sovereign peoples who followed the path of socialism and communism and had common interests and goals based on global socialist solidarity. These were the links that represent a new kind of global economic relations, aimed at the liquidation of exploitation in all its forms and manifestations, whether in the national or global scale.

This system includes a group of independent states that are linked by the global socialist division of labor. Because the sole economic basis and the single goals of social production provide the possibility of coordinating commercial plans between socialist countries and favorable conditions for the balance of their levels of economic development, and they enhance economic cooperation and increase rapprochement between them and work to accelerate the pace of economic growth in them. The most important forms of this economic cooperation among the socialist countries are:

  1. Coordination of national economy plans.
  2. Specialization in industrial and agricultural production and exchange of experiences and knowledge.
  3. Using the financial account in economic relations and setting prices.
  4. Building joint projects and new forms of production specialization.
  5. Scientific-technical cooperation and coordination of scientific research.
  6. Trade and mutual assistance.
Comecon.

The coordination of national economic plans among the countries of the socialist system was carried out in practice through the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), which was established in 1949. It included Bulgarian, Hungarian, German democracy (formerly), Poland, Romanian, Czechoslovak (previously), Soviet Union (previously), and Mongolian. The Comicon was an organization open to other countries that wished to join it and shared its goals and principles. The decisions and recommendations of the Council were taken only with the approval of all member states. They were not applied to countries that show a lack of interest in the issue concerned, and the Council had permanent committees aimed at coordinating production plans according to its branches.

Comecon. Red : Members. , Yellow :Observers , Purple :Member states who did not participate.

Communism stage:

Communism is the highest or second stage of the socio-economic formation that has not yet been reached by any country in the world, and the development of every individual in society becomes a comprehensive and unlimited development, the direct objective of this formation. Communism aims to transform every person into a creator so that human activity is a subjective activity. And when every member of the communist society is freed from the tedious and exhausting work in the field of pure material production, he has the opportunity to develop his competencies in all respects. This means the creation of new relationships between members of society so that each of them has an interest in the development of the other unlimited development.

Communism differs from socialism, above all, in that the level of development of the productive forces in communism is much higher than in socialism, and this leads to savings in material goods. If the social ownership of the means of production in the socialist stage appears in two necessary forms: public property (government) and cooperative ownership (collective farms), then communism in communism is limited to the only public ownership of the means of production. Relationships in communism between the individual and society are strengthened based on the unity of social and individual interests.

Working in both the socialist and thecommunist societies is a social dutyof every capable individual. However, the nature of this work changes in communism when it becomes the first vital requirement for a person, that is, it turns from an imposed duty to a primary need for a person to satisfy himself.

In the stage of communism, the fundamental differences between the countryside and the city, and between mental and physical work, as well as conflicts and differences between the classes, if any, are present in the stage of socialism. In the conditions of socialism, the social product is distributed according to the quantity and quality of the work spent. In communism, the high level of production obtained allows a transition to the distribution of the social output according to the needs of the people. But this requires a very high level of productivity, and individuals voluntarily undertake the work that each of them desires and investigates.

Communism is a social, non-class system, based on the sole public ownership of the means of production, on social equality among all members of society, and the productive forces grow in it based on scientific and technical progress.

Perestroika:

Perestroika postage stamp, 1988

Perestroika is a comprehensive program put forward by former Soviet President Gorbachev to develop a socialist society on new qualitative economic foundations and to establish and expand socialist democracy in all fields and levels. The perestroika has proposed a program for reconstruction to eliminate the imbalances and stagnation in the economies of socialist countries. Production, which necessarily requires improving management and improving the overall economic mechanism. All the transformations that perestroika wanted to achieve were based on the socialist ownership of the means of production. Socialist property was of two types: cooperative purchase and state ownership. With time, the ownership of the state lost the importance that it had in the first place. The workers began to feel that it was unknown ownership of the owner that does not belong to anyone, and it seemed alien to them. This matter has harmed economic growth in the group of socialist countries and in the interests of the productive workers themselves. Perestroika has presented a new concept of socialist property. It is considered a unified and indivisible capital, but it has various forms, as it is governmental, cooperative, municipal, collective and individual property. State property is the supreme mug between them, and any conflict between the different forms of ownership is no longer void.

Perestroika.

Perestroika also raised the issue of democracy and considered it one of the most critical questions to consider in life for more economic and social progress. The perestroika called for freedom at all levels:the level of the relationship between power and the people, between the party and the state, within the party itself, and between leaders and bases in the partisan, trade union, cultural, and other institutions, and within the factory and farm. The absence of democracy was considered one of the leading causes that led to the stage of stagnation in the former Soviet Union and in the rest of the socialist system, although not the only reason. Among the other main reasons that led to the appearance and exacerbation of imbalances and stagnation from the perestroika point of view:

A. Not shifting in time from expanded parallel development to intensive development.

B. A misunderstanding of social and collective ownership that has made production relations inappropriate for the required and possible development of productive forces and work productivity.

C. Slow down in the homogeneous combination of the central administration of the national economy, the economic independence of the prolific institutions and the democratization of them.

D. The significant difference between the prices and real values ​​of production and consumer goods locally and internationally.

The perestroika program aimed to bring about a change in the essence of productive and ownership relations by distributing power, rights, duties, and responsibilities in a new way, and raising the level of democracy in the socialist concept to a new level and based on the principles of self-management.The program expected to mobilize in this way the most robust emitter for human behavior, the economic interest, which is the driving force of social development. The principles of self-management stipulate that the group of workers take over the management and management of socialist property projects that are in its custody so that each institution or project thereof is a legal person that operates according to the principles of economic accounting and takes care of self-financing and spending itself.

As for the role of the state, it is summarized in setting the policy of economic, scientific and technical development,defining its strategies, and organizing the economy following general national interests and financial standards, while institutions, establishments, unions, and public bodies take charge of setting their own plans independently. Because central government planning guarantees the achievement of general national interests and gives them preference over partial interests, the perestroika did not propose the abolition of comprehensive central plan, but rather a change in its content and form.

However, subsequent developments in the Soviet Union confirmed the stalled reconstruction project for many reasons, the most important of which are: the burdensome legacy of the past, international pressure, the mistakes and illusions of the Soviet leadership. One of the results of the support provided by the rebuilding movement of the bourgeois capitalist movement in the Soviet Union and its encouragement of a “market economy,” and the recovery of the private sector, was that Gorbachev fell and the socialist system in the Soviet Union fell, and the entire Soviet Union contract was transformed into a number of conflicting republics among them. A Russian led by Yeltsin shifted from a planned economy to a free economy, or a market economy.

Perhaps most noticeable is the resilience of some socialist regimes that have adopted special means to socialism, and their ability to avoid collapse until today. China has been able to re-evaluate its steps towards developing its economic and social systems, and has taken a socialist market economy that combines state activity in the public sector with the activity of the private sector, and approves the investment of foreign capital that operates within the framework of a central plan for society’s economy, in addition to that it has made an advanced shift in The path of political and economic freedoms for individuals, It tended towards achieving a welfare economy within the framework of the socialist system. These steps have led to higher rates of growth in the economies of the capitalist system. Other systems, which have their own national and national paths to socialism, are still working to develop their systems through the conclusions have drawn from evaluating the experience of the collapse of Marxist regimes in the Soviet Union and Europe.

2.Capitalism:

Capitalism in general, refers to an Economic Systemin which the means of production are generally owned by a private queen or owned by companies operating for profit and where distribution, production, and price determination are governed by the free market, supply and demand.

According to the historical imperative, according to Marx, capitalism is the fruit of industrial development and the qualitative shift in the means of underdeveloped production in the feudal era to the advanced ways in the industrial revolution, in which the emergence of capitalismas one of the consequences, after the significant expansion of production, imperialism began to emerge through the presence of monopolistic companies It seeks to control the world, so military campaigns aimed at occupying the lands of others and securing markets for these companies began, and this is what is known as the colonial period. The tails of this colonialism remained despite the independence of many countries later, as these companies funded several military coups in the period of the fifties and sixties in the states of Latin America intending to preserve their hegemony over those countries. The capitalist systems believe in liberal thought, which is the approach of capitalism as an economy and democracy as a policy, it is considered The French saying (let him work let him pass)is the ideal slogan of capitalism that works on the freedom of trade and the transfer of goods and goods between countries without customs restrictions. Communism was by its excessive adherence to limiting ownership, which in its view is the main reason for the exploitation of man by his brother in response to the excessive expansion of Property within the capitalist system divided into two classes, the first is plentiful and the other is poor and working, called Karl Marx (the proletariat).

The historical perspective and the emergence of Capitalism:

Mankind has gone through its development with the following Socio-economic systems: the primitive communal system, the slave system, the feudal system, the capitalist system, and the socialist system that did not last long at the global level. And capitalism, as a historical stage, arose on the ruins of the feudal system that led to the development of production techniques in agriculture. The fields of livestock and animal production improved, as well as specialization and division of labor deepened within the same craft, and trade developed between European countries as well as between East and West, which added critical factors that led To the emergence of the seeds of capital relations.

John Maynard Keynes.

Capitalism is rooted in wars, colonialism, and the accumulation of wealth and money, driven by an unbridled desire for profit. With the first crusade, the disjointed, backward Europe woke up to the riches of the affluent East, and its rulers ’campaigns headed the armies of their poor peasants aspiring to be freed from the yoke of feudalism and extreme poverty. Later.

In the fifteenth century, the provinces of England, as well asFrance and Spain, and later the Netherlands, united and helped to strengthen them, geographical discoveries and the invasion of colonies, which opened up to the external markets and a source for obtaining raw materials and vast amounts of gold and silver that led to the "initial"accumulation of capital, helped In turn, later on the transition to the method of capitalist production.

The industrial revolution, which began in England and then moved to the rest of Europe and then to the United States and Japan,is the main joint in the development of the capitalist system, as it has enriched the bourgeois class and concentrated capital, and thus strengthened the method of capitalist production.

The Definition  Of Capitalism:

Capitalism is an economic system with a social and political philosophy based on the development and preservation of individual property, expanding in the concept of freedom. The world has tasted many misfortunes because of it, and capitalism continues to exert its political, social and cultural pressure and interference and aims its weight on the various peoples of the earth.

Establishment:

Europe was governed by the system of the Roman Empire inherited by the feudal system.

1. Between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, the bourgeois class emerged post-feudal and intertwined with feudalism.

2. The stage of capitalism fallowed the stage of capitalism, from the beginning of the sixteenth century, but gradually.

3.  The first call for freedom emerged, as did the request for the creation of non-religiousnationalities and the urge to reduce the spiritual shadow of the Pope.

4. A free (natural) doctrine appeared in the second half of the eighteenth century in France, where the naturalists appeared.

The foundations of capitalism:

A. Thunder for profit in various ways and methods except for what the state prohibits for general harm such as drugs, for example.

B. Sanctifying individual property by opening the way for every person to take advantage of his capabilities to increase and protect his wealth, not to attack it, to provide the laws necessaryfor its growth and steadfastness, and not to interfere with the state in economic life except to the extent required by public order and security consolidation.

C. The system of freedom of prices and the launch of this freedom according to the requirements of supply and demand, and the adoption of the law of the low cost to promote and sell the goods.

D. Free competition between institutions and individuals, through the full game and the mechanism of the law of supply and demand in the market.

E. Balance and harmony between the interest of the individual and the importance of society, where the benefit is realized for all if each person achieves it himself

F. State neutrality in economic activity, the role of which should be limited to protecting borders, maintaining security and order, drawing frameworks, and legislating the foundations necessary to facilitate the private business of individuals.

G. The hypothesis of rationality and rationality in the behavior of individuals and projects when making economic decisions.

  • Although these principles were the primary engine of economic activity in the beginnings of the emergence of the capitalist system and the stages of its development in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the advanced stages of capitalist development led to the torpedoing of the most important of them.

The stages of development of the capitalist system:

Within the framework of the development of the capitalist system, production has passed through the following stages: -

  • Simple production: It takes place in small workshops, and the worker performs all the stages of the production process.
  • Manufacture production: It is carried out in great concerns, within the framework of specialization and division of labor.
  • Industrial production (automated): where the machine has replaced simple work tools in large factories.

Capital Types:

A. Commercial capitalism that appeared in the sixteenth century after the elimination of feudalism, whose seeds originated in the bosom of the feudal system, and grew in the pure and factory production stages, as the importance of trade increased at that time. In an advanced stage, commercial capital began to play an essential role in the accumulation of cash capital When merchants began to employ craftsmen on their own and to finance production, this led to the emergence of a system of "financiers."

B. The industrial capitalism that helped its emergence is the advancement of industry and the development of the steam machine invented by James Watt in 1770 AD and the robotic spindle in 1785 AD which led to the establishment of the Industrial Revolution in England in particular and in Europe in general during the nineteenth century. This industrial capitalism is based on the separation of capital and the worker, that is, between man and machine. - Financial capitalism: It is characterized by the merging of industrial capital with banking capital, and the emergence of the so-called "financial capital," or "financial oligarchy."

This led to concentrations of incomes and wealth in the hands of a few people. At the same time, the vast majority turned poor, In the year 1820 AD, the ratio of the property of the wealthiest segment in the world to that of the lowest income group was owned, and this ratio became in 1960 AD, then in 1997 AD. As stated in the Human Development Report issued by the United Nations Development Program (1999), the three wealthiest individuals in the world possess assets that exceed the national product of all the poorest countries in the world, in which six hundred million people live.

Other ideas and beliefs:

  • The fundamental doctrine, which is the basis of capitalism, calls for, among other things: - Economic life is subject to a natural system that is not established by anyone, and in this capacity, realizes growth and progress for life automatically. - Calls for the state not to interfere in economic life and limit its mission to protecting individuals and funds, preserving security and defending the country. - Financial freedom for every individual, as he has the right to practice and choose the work that suits him, and they expressed that through the well-known principle:
  • "Let him work, let him pass." Capitalism's belief in broad freedom has led to chaos In conclusion and in behavior, which engendered these Western conflicts that are sweeping the world, expressing intellectual loss and spiritual emptiness. - The low wages and the strong demand for labor force the family to work for all its members, which led to the disintegration of the family bonds and the dissolution of social ties between them. One of Smith's most essential views is the growth, progress, and prosperity of economic life. It depends on financial freedom. - In his view, this freedom is represented by the following: - Individual freedom that allows the human being the freedom to choose his work that is consistent with his preparations and provides him with the required income. - Economic freedom in which production, circulation and distribution take place in an atmosphere of free competition. The capitalists believe that democracy is necessary for the individual to achieve compatibility between him and society, and because it is a driving force for production, as it is a human right that expresses human dignity.

The characteristics of new capitalism (greedy capitalism):

  • In the present era, the fundamental characteristics of capitalism, based mainly on contradictions and exploitation, crises, conflict, and colonialism, which have evolved only in the form, style and tools (management) of the imperialist capitalist system, have not changed.
  • Capitalism has transformed the recent achievements of the development of science, technology, and information into a substantial productive force, through which it was able to expand and tighten its control, power and cosmic strength on the one hand, and absorb many aspects of its problems and contradictions on the other side. And the capacity of capitalism appeared in three ways:

1. Managing inconsistencies and exploitation:

Capitalism has shown a great ability to adapt to historical conditions and stages, and indeed it's capacity to benefit from it. And capitalist regimes managed to mitigate and postpone their contradictory contradictions, at two levels: -

A - Offering advantages to the working class in capitalist countries, at the expense of stress in the exploitation of other peoples.

B - The parties to the traditional economic struggle between capitalist countries in their competition for the markets of other countries have changed into an economic-political-ideological and sometimes military conflict between global imperialism led by the United States of America and the rest of the world.

2. Crisis Management:

Research and studies based on advanced information technologies have helped formulate economic policies to take precautions to "prevent" or to mitigate the effects of financial crises, to turn these crises into"prolonged" recessions and into recessions that the economy can adapt to.

Because of economic and financial intertwining at the international level, the capitalist system has been able to create for itself, both at the national or the global level, the appropriate tools and mechanisms to help confront crises and alleviate their severity.

3. Conflict management and the "New World Order":

The major transformations that took place in the world at the beginning of the nineties of the twentieth century, which were represented in the collapse and disintegration of the eastern camp, and the emergence of the so-called "new international order," which resulted in the separation of the contract of the polarity "that characterized the previous international system," in favor of absolute domination. Of imperialism in the world.

As El Berger says, colonialism is the necessary expression of capitalism at an advanced stage. Therefore the new international order is a new restoration of old colonialism, but what distinguishes this “new colonial system” is the following:

A. Unipolarity of American military and political hegemony, and triple polarity of economic leadership (USA / Western Europe / Japan).

B. Utilizing the imperialist technical and technological development to control (remote) all over the world.

C. The (American) imperial attempt to conduct a process of structural (structural) restructuring or control of peoples, systems, and forces contrary to it or rejecting the master of the new regime, using economic blockade, political escalation, and/or military threats.

D. Imperial domination of international bodies and institutions within the framework of the United Nations.

We can call the current stage of the development of capitalism that emerged liberal and then developed into a monopoly and then to imperialism, it is passing today in the arena of greedy capitalism.

The reforms of capitalism:

Until 1875 AD, England was one of the largest developed capitalist countries. But in the last quarter of the nineteenth century both the United States and Germany appeared, and after World War II Japan appeared. - In 1932 AD, the state started its intervention more in England, and in the United States, the state increased its intervention starting in the year 1933 AD, and in Germany starting from the Hitler era in order to maintain the continuity of the capitalist system.

The interference of the state has been in transportation, education, caring for the rights of citizens, and enacting laws of a social nature, such as social security, aging, unemployment, disability, health care, improving services, and raising the standard of living. Capitalism has directed this partial reformist trend because of the emergence of workers as an electoral power in democratic countries and because of human rights committees, and to stem the communist tide that pretends to be supporters of workers and claims to defend their rights and gains.

The future of capitalism:

  • Marxist thought that capitalism is an ephemeral historical stage, bearing the seeds of its demise in its internal contradictions, and Marxism is betting on the inconsistency of these contradictions and exacerbating their severity at a particular stage, so the exploited working class moves and controls the means of production, and the transition to the socialist system takes place.
  • However, capitalist systems managed with great success to mitigate their internal contradictions, by partially diverting them outside their borders, and to change or mutate the conflict equation, from a conflict between the working class and capitalists to a dispute between capitalist and non-capitalist systems. Hence, it is not possible in the foreseeable future to depend on the movement of the working class in the capitalist centers to eliminate the capitalist system.
  • On the one hand, the future of capitalism depends on its ability to develop new mechanisms to control the exploited and colonized. On the other hand, it depends on the level of development, capacity, will, and the alliance of the other camp to curb the global capitalist centers. But the prevailing opinion today is that the capitalist system as one of the socioeconomic formations in the history of human development has not been established in its social roots, nor has it yet developed to its final stage. Capitalism still can move beyond its "national" imperialist stage to the scene of "colonial" global imperialism ".

Besides, the United States' hegemony over the world capitalist system was accompanied by the following two phenomena:

A. Ignite local wars in the place and time that support the US hegemony over the world: the first and second Gulf wars, the war in Yugoslavia, and the war on terror and its expected extensions.

B. Engaging any economic or military power in the world’s board of directors chaired by the United States when the latter feels fearing that this power will come out of American hegemony, as it did with Russia by annexing it to the G8, and as it tries with China and some major countries in the Third World Group.

Group Of Eight. G8

Intellectual and ideological roots:

1. Capitalism is rooted in something from ancient Roman philosophy, as demonstrated by its desire to possess power and to exert influence and control.

2. It evolved from feudalism to the bourgeoisie to capitalism, during which it acquired various ideas and principles that flow into the trend of promoting individual property and the call for freedom.

The Disadvantages Of Capitalism:

  • 1. Monopoly: The capitalist person monopolizes the goods and stores them, even if they are lost from the markets, he descends them to sell them at a double price in which the weak consumers are blackmailed.
  • 2. Capitalism: has grown to amplify the issue of individual property, as has communism in abolishing this property.
  • 3. Extortion of labor: Capitalism makes labor a commodity subject to the concepts of supply and demand, which makes the worker exposed at every moment because he is replaced by others who take lower wages or perform more work or better service.
  • 4. Unemployment: It is a common phenomenon in a capitalist society, and it is very prominent if production is more than consumption, which causes the employer to dispense with the increase in these hands that burden him.
  • 5. Wildlife: As a result of the conflict between two classes, one of which is extortionist, she is interested in collecting money from all means and the other is deprived, looking for the essential elements of her life without being covered by anything of mutual compassion and sympathy.
  • 6. Colonialism: That is because capitalism is motivated by the search for raw materials, and motivated by the search for new markets for marketing products that fall within the ambit of colonialism of peoples and nations first economic, intellectual, political and cultural colonialism in general, in addition to the enslavement of peoples and harnessing the labor force in their interest.
  • 7. Wars and Destruction: Humanity has witnessed a strange color of killing and destruction as a result.

~EnRi