What we called the Age of Illuminations is the period that followed the mid of 16th century after a large number of scientific discoveries that happened by famous scientists, this term become widely spread to include any kind of science that illuminate the minds from darkness, ignorance, and myth by using mind criticism and the contribution of scientific research.
The Age of illumination gave birth to the most important scientific discoveries, the Telescope and microscope , these discoveries allowed the intellect to see the world from a different point of view and made them doubt the old explanation of the universe . Their vision to the world was widely expanded, to the outside (using telescopes) where there are planets and the stars and to the inside (using microscope) where there is the small living particular like the bacteria in a small drop of water .
Every new discovery in biology, chemistry and physics added to the absolute conclusions that the ability of human brain to solve problems using logic is the only way the solve all the mysterious in the universe through time and it is the only way forward to the human civilization and with development of science many intellect starting to refuse the political and religious reality that they thought they are blocking the “free thinking” and they are main reasons to retrograde of the society.
The intellect of this age were also interested in discovering the laws that that run the world “laws of of nature” and also the laws that rule the mind and the main questions that were raised. If we destroyed the old systems of morality like religion, will there be chaos in the society? Will that bring the destruction of civilization or building it?
What is the true use of the old laws of morality? In this age there was no limit to human intellect.
This age doesn’t only question religion and its relationship to the society but also questions (and to the first time) the legality of the monarch , where is there legality come from? This dangerous question cast a shadow on the European communities. The Philosophers of this age also discussed many problems such as (political repression , the natural rights of man , what are the good virtues of a ruler ? What is the role of religion ? ) and these are the most important philosophers and scientists and they change the thinking of the societies .
One of the main pillars to begun the Age of illumination because he proved that the universe worked in a very accurate laws calling them the laws of nature despite he didn’t believed in any organized religion but he declared that God is the greatest watchmaker in the universe and what that means is the the universe runs like a clock . He gave a new idea that no other dared to think, God created the universe in this shape that he designed so there is no reason to interfere after he did his work as perfectly as he could .
René Descartes :
Many consider him as the one who put the reason way of thinking based on evidence, He wasn’t very successful in the field of applied science but he was very good in Philosophy and he is the one who said “ Doubt everything” . His main achievement in this field which then considered as a road map to every philosopher that followed him is Bilateral In nature where this with mind in one hand and matter in the other.
Thomas Hobbes :He is the one who said that “people make bad choices because they are bad” this is why we need monarchs with absolute power even if they are bad but their decisions are final and not to be disputed by anyone else .
John locke :
He is an English thinker who lived after Thomas Hobbes and he disagreed with him , he said that people are not bad by their nature but their ignorance made them so and that is why we see savagery in their actions and he declared that every human being have three fundamental rights ( the right of life , the right to be free, the right of owning property) and a government that can’t secure these right loses their legality and in that case the people have every right to rise up and get rid of the government and form a new government that secure these rights .
jan jack russo:
This philosopher came when the intellectual straggle between church and state was at it’s peak his famous book “the social contract” begun it with his famous line (humans are born free but where ever they go they drag the chains of slavery)
he tried in this book to emplane that every human prefer his own interest than the interests of the society and this the reason of collapsing of civilization and returning to the rule of the jungle so the solution for him is a social contract between the people and the governor that ensure the state to do it’s contract to the people .
The age of Illumination created the Western civilization and forgetting it means forgetting who we are and what we owe to ourselves and to the illuminated way of thinking .
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