A Lebanese Shiite military political organisation, which was established after the Israeli invasion of Beirut in 1982, and it fought an open war against Israel that ended with its withdrawal from southern Lebanon in 2000. It participated in the Syrian war in defense of the regime, so it lost much of its popularity in the Arab and Islamic world.

Birth and Founding:

The sources unanimously agree that Hezbollah was practically established after Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982, capping an ideological struggle that Lebanese Shiite political and intellectual leaders experienced for a long time.

With the rise of Ayatollah Khomeini's star in Iran in 1979, the heat of discussion rose over the organizational form that the active intellectual movement loyal to the new direction of the new rulers of Tehran would take.

Thought and Ideology:

A statement issued by the party on February 16, 1985 stated that the party "is committed to the orders of a wise and just leadership embodied in Wilayat al-Faqih, and embodied in the spirit of God, Ayatollah Mousavi Khomeini, the bomber of the Muslim revolution and the initiator of their glorious renaissance."

The party’s members belong to the Shiite sect linked to the Iranian religious and political authority, and the party affirms in its literature that one of its priorities is to establish a more just and free society in Lebanon, in addition to resisting Israel and paying attention to the issues of the Arab and Islamic nation, foremost of which is the issue of Palestine.

The Political path:

There is no reliable data that explains in detail the methods of managing the party before 1989, but the information circulating indicates that the leadership was collective until 1989.

After the party established mass expansion thanks to its charitable and social activity in the south, it developed its organizational framework and elected Sheikh Subhi al-Tufayli as its first Secretary General (1989-1991), then was dismissed in 1998 after declaring civil disobedience in protest against the deteriorating social and economic conditions of the Shiites in Lebanon.

Abbas al-Moussawi assumed the position of Secretary-General in 1991, succeeding Tufaili, and was assassinated by Israel in early 1992, and Hassan Nasrallah assumed leadership after him.

The party was accused of being involved in the 1983 bombing of the US embassy in Beirut, in which - according to US sources - 53 American employees were killed, and dozens were injured of varying severity.

The party focused on confronting Israel militarily for years, and Lebanese sources quoted it as saying that the average operations it launched against Israel (1989-1991) amounted to 292 operations, then in 1992-1994 it amounted to 465 operations.

The operations of the national resistance succeeded and the Lebanese Islamic movement - led by Hezbollah - pushed the occupation to take a unilateral decision in the year 2000 to withdraw from southern Lebanon, and with this step the party's shares in the Arab and Islamic popular circles rose, and then this rise was strengthened by its steadfastness and its effective military performance during the Israeli attack against Lebanon in the 2006 war.

After the withdrawal of the Syrian forces from Lebanon following the killing of Rafik Hariri in February 2005, the party's relationship with the main (non-Shiite) Lebanese political formations experienced a major crisis, which culminated in a military invasion of Beirut on May 7, 2008.

Clashes took place in Beirut and some areas of Mount Lebanon between the party and its allies (March 8 Forces) on the one hand, and gunmen affiliated with its opponents (March 14 Forces) on the other, following the Lebanese government’s two decisions to confiscate the communications network of the party’s signal corps, and dismiss the commander of the security apparatus at the Beirut International airport.

These clashes resulted in dozens of deaths on both sides and property damage, and also led the Lebanese government to withdraw its two resolutions, and the crisis ended with the "Doha Agreement" that ended the political crisis and resulted in the election of a new president and parliament.

During the Syrian revolution, Hezbollah's popularity in the Arab and Islamic world declined dramatically after its participation in the forces of Bashar al-Assad's regime, which it publicly began with the battle of the city of al-Qusayr in May 2013.

Although the Lebanese political leaders have called on the party more than once to withdraw its members from Syria and spare Lebanon the repercussions of the party’s participation in the Syrian war, the Secretary-General of the party, Hassan Nasrallah - and with the party leaders - reiterated on multiple occasions that his participation in the Syrian war came to “protect internal security.”Lebanese, and protecting Lebanon's resistance.

On March 2, 2016, the countries of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf decided to consider Hezbollah a terrorist organisation, and this classification included all the leaders of the party, its factions, and its affiliated and emanating organizations.

The council's decision,according to its Secretary-General Abdul Latif Al-Zayani, came as a result of "the continuation of hostilities carried out by members of these militias to recruit youth from the GCC countries to carry out terrorist acts and smuggle weapons and explosives."

In the parliamentary elections that took place on May 6, 2018, Hezbollah won 13 seats, and the Amal Movement allied with it, led by Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri, won 16 seats, a total of 29 seats for the two Shiite allies.Commenting on this, Hezbollah Secretary-General Nasrallah said that the results of the parliamentary elections that his party achieved with "allied and friendly forces" constitute a "great victory for the resistance option" in Lebanon, considering that the new composition of the Parliament constitutes a guarantee to protect what he described as the golden equation "the army, the people and the resistance."

Sources:

https://www.understandingwar.org/report/hezbollah-syria

https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.albayan.ae/opinions/articles/2017-12-20-1.3137092%3fot=ot.AMPPageLayout