The President of Syria, he assumed the presidency to succeed his father in 2000, and launched a fierce war - with the support of Russia, Iran and the Lebanese Hezbollah - against the revolutionaries against his regime, which led to the killing and wounding of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of millions.

Birth and upbringing:

Bashar Hafez Ali Suleiman al-Assad was born on September 11, 1965 in Damascus, Syria, to a family belonging to the Alawite (Nusayri) sect, which is a minority in the country, and he grew up in an atmosphere of power after his father presided over the country in a military coup in 1970.

Study and training

He was educated during all stages in Damascus schools, and graduated in 1988 from the Faculty of Medicine at Damascus University, specializing in ophthalmology, and practiced this profession after his graduation.  In 1992 he went to Britain to continue his studies in this field.

Functions and Responsibilities

Bashar al-Assad was assigned to manage the Lebanese file in 1995 due to the intertwined Syrian-Lebanese relations, and in 1998 he played a prominent role in the inauguration of Lebanese President Emile Lahoud.  On June 11, 2000, he was appointed commander of the army, and the ruling Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party chose him as its country secretary on June 27, 2000, and then announced his election in a popular referendum on July 1, 2000, as president of the republic.

political experience

After the death of his brother Basil in a traffic accident in 1994, Bashar returned to Syria to be prepared for the succession of his father, President Hafez al-Assad. He joined the Syrian army with the rank of captain, and in 1995 he was promoted to the rank of major, then to the rank of lieutenant-colonel (1997), then to the rank of colonel.  (1999), and in the following year he took command of the army.

The Syrian People's Assembly met after the death of Hafez al-Assad on June 10, 2000, to amend Article No. (83) of the Constitution, which stipulates that the age of the president must be 40 years, and in a three-second vote, Article (83) became stipulates that the age of the president  It could be 34 years old, which is Bashar's age at the time, and with this constitutional amendment, which is considered the fastest of its kind in the world, Bashar was able to assume the presidency of the country.

During his reign, Syria's relationship with the United States worsened, specifically after the events of September 11, 2001, and after America's occupation of Iraq in 2003, when Washington accused Damascus of supporting "terrorists" who infiltrated across the Syrian border into Iraq to fight its forces.

The relationship between the two countries entered a dangerous stage after the killing of Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri in February 2005, when the US administration supported Lebanese parties that accused the Syrian security services of complicity in the assassination or negligence in preventing its occurrence, forcing the Syrian army to withdraw from Lebanese territory under international pressure.  Intense.

In March 2011, Syria witnessed large popular protests affected by the Arab revolutions that erupted in several countries such as Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Yemen. Syrians took to the streets in several cities demanding freedom and political reform.

In an effort to calm the angry protests, Bashar al-Assad ordered the abolition of the state of emergency imposed for decades, dissolved the government, and took several other political and economic measures, but to no avail.

After that, the regime - backed by Russia, Iran and the Shiite Hezbollah - resorted to using weapons to quell peaceful demonstrations, the protests turned into an armed revolution, and the country entered into a civil war in which hundreds of thousands of people were killed and wounded, tens of thousands were arrested, millions were displaced, and a huge number of people were destroyed.  Cities and villages partially or completely.

Bashar al-Assad was announced as winning a third presidential term in the presidential elections that took place in the country in June 2014, by obtaining more than ten million votes, and a rate of 88.7% in elections that witnessed a participation rate of more than 73%, according to the Supreme Constitutional Court in Syria.

Those elections were ridiculed by the Syrian refugees, who described them as absurd, in light of the tragic conditions in the country.

Bashar al-Assad has remained the center of a deep disagreement between the parties involved in the Syrian issue, between those who see that he has no future in the Syrian scene, considering this a prerequisite for the success of political negotiations, and those who insist that it must be part of the solution, a position adopted by Russia and Iran.