An Egyptian president, he fought the October 1973 war in which the Egyptian army achieved a great victory over the Israeli army after it crossed the Suez Canal.  His name was associated with the Camp David Accord, which was the first peace agreement signed by an Arab country with Israel, which aroused widespread anger against him and led to an Arab boycott of Egypt.  He was assassinated on October 6, 1981.

Birth and upbringing
Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat was born on December 25, 1918, in the village of Mit Abu al-Koum in the Menoufia Governorate, Egypt, to a large rural family, whose father worked in a military hospital.

Study and training
He received his initial education in the village kuttab, and obtained his primary certificate at the Coptic Primary School in the village of Toukh Dalka, affiliated to the Tala Center in Menoufia.

After completing his secondary studies, he joined the Military College in 1935 to complete his higher studies, and graduated in 1938 as an officer with the rank of second lieutenant.

Functions and Responsibilities
Sadat joined the ranks of the Egyptian army and was appointed in the city of Manqabad in the south of the country. During this stage, he was influenced by regional and international political figures, including the Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi and the Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.

Following his activities against the British occupation of Egypt, Sadat was expelled from the army and imprisoned, and after his release from prison, and until December 1948, he worked as a press reviewer in Al-Musawwar magazine before his friend Dr. Youssef Rashad - the private doctor of King Farouk - helped him to return to the army.

After the coup of the Free Officers Organization - of which he was a member - against King Farouk, the military action returned him again to the journalistic work, as the Revolutionary Command Council established in 1953 the newspaper Al-Jumhuriya and assigned him as its editor-in-chief, as was assigned to him before reading the first statement of the revolution on radio waves  , and the task of carrying the document of the abdication of the throne to the king.
intellectual orientation
He was one of the advocates of independence from Britain before the revolution of July 1952, and was imprisoned several times because of his political activity at the time.  After the revolution, he believed in Abdel Nasser's ideas calling for liberation and standing up to colonial plans, but he was less severe in that than his colleague Abdel Nasser.

When he became president, he changed his view of Israel and believed in the idea of ​​establishing a comprehensive, lasting and just peace with it, as he put it. This was translated by his visit to Jerusalem in 1977 and the 1979 peace treaty.

At the internal level, he was not inclined to rapid democratic change, and he considered this to be an obstacle to development, although his political behavior in this was lighter than the military rule that prevailed during the Nasserist period, as it allowed the formation of political parties and released political detainees who spent most of the years of Nasser's rule.  The bars of the famous military prison.

But at the end of his life, he began to get fed up with democracy, so he took his decision to arrest about 1,200 thinkers, journalists, writers, and Islamic and Christian scholars, which led to his assassination later.

political experience
He was an active politician since his youth, and the British authorities arrested him twice on charges of contacting the Germans during the Second World War (1939-1945), and his name was associated in that period with the assassination of the Egyptian politician Amin Othman in 1946 after the national movement accused him of dealing with the British.

Sadat participated in the July 1952 revolution, and at that time he was an officer in the signal corps and a member of the Free Officers Group who made the revolution.

These events made him famous, and minutes after one of the officers delivered the first statement of the revolution from the Egyptian radio, President Mohamed Naguib - the first president of Egypt - decided to re-deliver the statement with a strong loud voice, so Sadat was chosen for this task, in which he announced the end of the monarchy and the transition to republican rule.

He was known by the barracks, newspaper pages, and their newsrooms, and the legislative establishment was familiar with him as well. He was elected as a member of the People’s Assembly for three sessions since 1957, and on July 21, 1960, he was elected Chairman of the Council until September 27, 1961, and then for a second term from March 29, 1964.  to November 12, 1968.

After the revolution, he assumed several positions, the most important of which was the position of Vice President of the Republic from 1964-1966, then President Gamal Abdel Nasser chose him again for the same position in 1969.

Following the death of Abdel Nasser in 1970, Sadat became the third president of Egypt after Mohamed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.  The most dangerous decision he took two years after assuming the position was to prepare for a war with Israel, which he began in 1972 by expelling the Russian military experts present in the Egyptian army at the time.

He made his historic decision, in coordination with the Syrian front, to launch a surprise war against Israel, during which he achieved a partial military victory on October 6, 1973, by which he recovered part of the Sinai Peninsula, which was occupied by Israel in 1967.

The war stopped after the intervention of the United States and the arrival of its direct military aid to Israel on the battlefield. Barely four years after the ceasefire between Egypt and Israel, Sadat surprised the world in 1977 by visiting Jerusalem and giving a speech in the Israeli Knesset in which he called for peace.

The Arab response to this step was strong, so they decided to boycott Egypt and move the headquarters of the League of Arab States from Cairo to Tunis.

The Egyptian-Israeli peace procession in the United States ended with the signing of the Camp David Accords on March 26, 1979. While Arab countries accused him of treason, the Western world awarded him the Nobel Peace Prize, along with his partner in the agreement, Menachem Begin in 1978.

He could not maintain the gains he had achieved through the victory of the Egyptian army in the October War for a long time, as local public opinion soon began to change towards him, especially after he ordered in September 1981 the arrest of 1,600 Islamic, communist and Christian leaders without a clear reason.

The process of revenge against Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat was unexpected. While he was witnessing a party commemorating the victory of the Egyptian forces over the Israeli army in the 1973 war, and during the military parade, a group of Egyptian Islamists belonging to the Jihad group - headed by Khaled al-Islambouli - shot him dead.  On October 6, 1981.